Emperors in Japan - Emperors who were struggling with domestic and international power fighting (Insei era) -
Emperor Go-toba had excellent talent in many ways. But he lost the battle and experienced unprecedented humiliation in the emperor of the past.
Middle ages, Heian period - late stage - ～ Kamakura period
- The Imperial Palace
- Birth and death
- July 14, 1180 - February 22, 1239
60 years old
- August 20, 1183 - January 11, 1198
- First Name
- 80th Emperor Takakura
- Shokushi Fujiwara
Nobutaka Fujiwara's daughter
- Crowned as a symbol of anti-Heike
- Aimed for politics centered on the Emperor and Joko
- Go-toba-in lost political life because of his own intention
- Last Insei, the Emperor will become a supporting member of history for a while
- A man with a top-level talent among the emperors of the past
- There was also the talent of warrior
- Why is it called "Go-" Toba?
- This chrysanthemum begins this Emperor
Crowned as a symbol of anti-Heike
In 1180 the emperor Takakura's 4th prince, Prince Takahira was born. In 1180, the year when the capital was relocated from Kyoto to Fukuhara (present Hiroshima prefecture), Yoritomo Minamoto-no raised an army in the year.
Emperor Go-toba was born at the beginning of a turbulent era.
I will explain the power of samurai here.
Heike is a samurai faction with the strongest power at the time, its leader was Kiyomori Taira-no.
Gen-ji is the only warrior faction that can compete with it, Yoritomo Minamoto-no, Yoshinaka Kiso is Gen-ji.
In 1183, three years later, Pope Go-shirakawa decided to set up a new emperor as Emperor Antoku, the elder brother of Takahira's brother, fled from Kyoto with Heike.
Yoshinaka Kiso who was in Kyoto this year will recommend Mochihito-ou, the son of the Pope.
In 1180, Mochihito-ou failed to sell the anti-Heike and raised an army, but since Yoritomo was inspired by this and raise an army, it was a symbol of anti-Heike. However, the Pope makes his grandchild, Prince Takahira (Emperor Go-toba) crowned to the Emperor.
Because the three kinds of sacred treasures were brought with Emperor Antoku, it was an exceptional throne with only declaration from the Pope without three kinds of sacred treasures.
The three kinds of sacred treasure are proof of the emperor, inheriting from the previous generation when the Emperor throne.
Also, Emperor Antoku only fled from Kyoto, and he is not exiting the Emperor.
At this point, it was unusual also that there were two Emperors at the same time.
To the throne of Emperor Go-toba, the political judgment of Pope Go-shirakawa and the confusing political situation at the time have greatly influenced.
The Pope has already abandoned Heike, but he did not trust Gen-ji completely. Especially he dislikes Yoshinaka Kiso.
When Yoshinaka Kiso promotes Mochihito-ou, the Pope shows the attitude of "There is no authority to tell the opinion of who you should be the Emperor!"
The father of Emperor Go-toba is Emperor Takakura. His mother is Kiyomori's wife's sister. The empress of Emperor Go-toba has a daughter of Kiyomori. It was clearly the Emperor on the Heike side.
Although the Pope had abandoned Heike, he was also able to return to Heike side when Genji was useless.
Aimed for politics centered on the Emperor and Joko
Emperor Go-toba was not able to take political actions because the Pope Go-shirakawa held the real power for nine years after being crowned.
In 1192 Pope Go-shirakawa passed away. And Yoritomo Minamoto-no became the Shogun General, and it was the year when the Kamakura shogunate was opened.
The politics of Emperor Go-toba starts from here. He was 13 years old. He aims for politics at the center of the Emperor.
The appointment of Yoritomo 's Shogun General is what Kanezane Kujo who held the real power instead of the child emperor did it without permission.
Kanezane was an action aimed at the weakness of the emperor who was childhood.
As Emperor Go-toba grows it will keep Kanezane away. And the 17 - year - old Emperor who grew up to an age where he could assert his intention clearly dismissed Kanpaku Kanezane and fired.
In 1198 two years later, Emperor Go-toba abdicated and throne the son's Emperor Tsuchimikado, becoming Joko and going to do his own politics in earnest. From this behavior, you can see that Emperor Go-toba was aiming at politics centered on Emperor and Joko to the last.
To fired Kanezane means that the Go-toba-in does not allow the Kamakura Shogunate to have the power beyond the Kyoto government. He thought that the Kamakura Shogunate should be an assistant force of the Kyoto government to the last.
Until now, the Kyoto government was simply called the government. However, in Japan of the future from now on, a political system centered on samurai called shogunate will start. So, to distinguish it from it, we call it the Kyoto government.
The center of the Kyoto government continues to be an emperor even in the era of samurai's administration.
Go-toba-in lost political life because of his own intention
Contrary to Go-toba-in's aims, the Kamakura Shogunate puts various pressure on the Kyoto government.
Although Go-toba-in loses the pressure, he will spend 24 years with an exquisite balance that the last will not be what the Kamakura Shogunate wants.
Also, he did not choose the way to collide with the Kamakura Shogunate. He acts in a friendly manner in a variety of ways with the Kamakura shogunate.
In 1203, in the Kamakura Shogunate, Sanetomo Minamoto-no assumed office as the 3rd general. Go-toba-in will get the cousin to marry as Sanetomo 's wife.
Go-toba-in and Sanetomo had a relationship of trust as it was. In addition Sanetomo had even made a promise to accept from the royal family the next generals because there was no successor.
However, the samurai of the Kamakura shogunate centering on Hojo clan continues to oppose Sanetomo's friendship policy with the Kyoto government. Go-toba-in also was dissatisfied with the attitude of the samurai of the Kamakura shogunate.
I will leave the details to "Jokyu no ran" 's post, but as Sanetomo is assassinated, a decisive conflict between Go-toba-in and the samurai of the Kamakura shogunate is born.
In 1121, Go-toba-in finally instructs the samurai nationwide so as to punish Yoshitoki Hojo, the executive officer of the Kamakura shogunate. "Jokyu no ran" began.
From around here, the generals of the Kamakura shogunate have no real power. The Hojo clan, a subordinate of the general, takes over the power by taking over the executive role of the Kamakura shogunate called Shikken.
In the Kamakura period, neither the Emperor nor the General of the Kamakura shogunate has power. Shikken of the Kamakura shogunate who has a lower office position, people who can not possess power originally have substantial power. It is a mysterious age.
Go-toba-in is 41 years old. It was probably motivated behavior. However, Go-toba-in will easily defeat.
Go-toba-in was expelled from Kyoto and was sentenced to deportation to Oki.
Go-toba-in was not exiled to the enemy. When the boss tried to discipline the subordinate 's subordinate' s domineering attitude and to discipline it, there was a strange thing that the boss was going to be fired.
There is only this one in Japan's history that the regular army organized by the Emperor and Joko is totally overthrown by a private army.
In this way Go-toba-in 's political life was cut off. Then he spent 19 years in Oki and died at the age of 60.
Last Insei, the Emperor will become a supporting member of history for a while
Go-toba-in reigned as three emperor Joko and took over politics.
- 83th Emperor Tsuchimikado (13 years reign)
- 84th Emperor Juntoku (12 years reign)
- 85th Emperor Chukyou (4 months reign)
By "Jokyu no ran", Go-toba-in, Tsuchimikado-in, Juntoku-in were sentenced and exiled from Kyoto. Emperor Chukyou is abdicated.
With this, the power of the Kyoto government as a political power has completely disappeared.
In the history of Japan, the period during which the Kyoto government is sent off as a political force will extend over a long period of 800 years.
In order for the Emperor to become the center of politics again, we must wait until Japan's modern days.
This also means that the governance system called Insei will collapse. Insei is a system that was born to change the domineering politics of the Fujiwara clan. It could not sustain without the help of a samurai.
However, the Insei was collapsed by the samurai.
In the history of Japan, Insei is positioned as an intermediate system of the transition process from aristocratic society to samurai society, and it is not well known.
The era of Insei is due to the appearance of samurai, the formation of the samurai regime, and the formation of the shogunate.
We live in modern times, we know that samurai takes over 800 years of political power. So we find great value in samurai society.
However, it is a mistake to see the value of Insei system crushed by samurai is small.
Japanese know well about Nobunaga Oda, Hideyoshi Toyotomi in the same transition period. That Japanese knows a lot of other samurai.
But why is it that little people are active in the Insei era?
There are not many people who know the Emperor who was active in these Japanese history.
Japanese people can hardly tell the Emperor about their history. It is taught that way as much as an intelligent man.
So, few people appreciate the Emperor with Japanese education.
The Japanese do not know the emperor in Japan surprisingly.
This is the evidence that the emperor who has a certain respect in overseas is being despised in Japan. It is because it does not know the real value.
By the way, while self-naming maintenance, people who are ignorant in their history too are the current Prime Minister of Japan.
He will send out to the world what kind of denying Yoshida Shoin which is a hero of the local historical history in the United States.
He is one of the Japanese who are largely despising the Emperor. This is the ordinary Japanese now.
I feel that I do not know the history is really scary. It is the end of the world because that is called "conservatism".
I would like children who carry Japan from now to know the true history of Japan.
A man with a top-level talent among the emperors of the past
Emperor Go-toba is famous to be a multi-talented owner. Waka in particular was top notch, revived Waka-dokoro which was established at the time of Emperor Murakami.
And he gathered excellent poets and encouraged poems.
Waka is poetry with a unique rule in Japan long ago, Waka-dokoro is like a laboratory of Waka.
Emperor Go-toba also compiled a poem collection called "Shin-Kokin-Waka-shu" with the power of an excellent poet.
Even after he was exiled to Oki, he was working on editing this poetry collection.
In addition to poetry, she also showed outstanding talent for court traditional arts such as books, paintings, music and Kemari.
Kemari is a sport like football lifting at present. The court noblemen of the time enjoyed such a thing.
There was also the talent of warrior
Emperor Go-toba was rarely a warrior's talent in the Emperor of this era.
It is said that he liked exercises such as sumo, swimming, bow exercises, and forged herself with a sword to give it to his vassals.
Three years after he started Insei, about 1,200 years he has formed a samurai group "Saimen-no-Bushi" which is a guardian of his own affairs.
There is a theory that it began preparing to defeat the shogunate and a theory that Go-toba-in who likes martial arts started irrespective of the Kamakura shogunate.
Because of this talent, he may have wanted equal contact with the Kamakura Shogunate and armed force too.
And there may be reasons why "Jokyu no ran" has happened.
If this person appeared a little while ago, I think that there would have been no samurai's turn.
Why is it called "Go-" Toba?
Emperor Go-toba has a name derived from Emperor Toba. That is because Emperor Go-toba has something in common with Emperor Toba.
Emperor Toba holds a samurai group called "Hokumen-no-Bushi" for the protection of the family, Emperor Go-toba formed a group of samurai called "Saimen-no-Bushi".
Both of us are doing Insei which remains in history which reigned on multiple emperors. Also, it has caused a great civil war in Japan's history.
Emperor Toba is "Hougen no ran", Emperor Go-toba is "Jokyu no ran".
In this way the person named Emperor "Go -" xxx has something to do with the Emperor xxx. There is such a view in the name of the Emperor.
This chrysanthemum begins this Emperor
What is written on the gate and passport of the Japanese shrine is "chrysanthemum pattern".
This is like the imperial family crest. The chrysanthemum pattern begins with Emperor Go-toba.
Emperor Go-toba likes chrysanthemums and used it for clothes, furnishings, handkerchiefs, cars, swords and so on.
By doing this, people who used the chrysanthemum pattern so far refrained from using it. It is said that it became popular as the emblem of the Imperial family.
This Emperor performs things in various genres that will be left behind in posterity. A real genius may be saying about these people.