"Jokyu no ran" (civil war): Only in history, the regular army was overthrown

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Japan's civil war Hogen no ran

In the history of Japan, there is no other example except "Jokyu-no-ran" where regular forces are overwhelmed by private forces.

Three people who have experienced the emperor were sent into exile and the emperor was abdicated, which resulted in an unusual result.

Middle ages, Kamakura period

Before the outbreak of "Jokyu no ran", there were lots of people 's speculation

The cause of "Jokyu no ran" is in the Kyoto government where opinions were divided.
Opinions were divided on the relationship with the Kamakura Samurai led by Yoritomo Minamoto-no who grew up to a major power as a political force.

At this time, the leader of the Kyoto government is Go-shirakawa-in. Go-shirakawa-in's idea was to conduct politics himself at Insei.
Go-shirakawa-in requested Yoritomo as a position to assist the Kyoto government. So, never allowed Yoritomo to act alone.

Go-shirakawa-in passed various authorities to Yoritomo. That is because Go-shirakawa-in's position will be dangerous if you make Yoritomo an enemy.
Go-shirakawa-in tried not to become an enemy by giving authority gradually while taking distance with Yoritomo.

On the other hand, there were people who thought that there is no future for the Kyoto government unless the distance is shortened with Yoritomo. It is Kanezane Kujo who served Sesshou, Kanpaku, Dajo-Daijin.

Sesshou, Kanpaku, Dajo-Daijin are the finest positions at the time. Kanezane who has kept it is the most powerful person except Emperor.

Kanezane will try to build a good relationship by responding to Yoritomo's request to the utmost.
Go-shirakawa-in thought that Kanezane 's action would jeopardize the position of the Kyoto government by only increasing the power of Yoritomo.

On the other hand, in Kamakura, Kamakura Samurai aimed to create a society centered on them, away from the influence of the Kyoto government.
Hopefully the Kyoto government wanted to put it under his control.

It continues from 1183 to 1192 in the subtle balance of these three people.

(Since the period 1183 to 1185 was still the Heike administration, the power figure is more complicated.)

The balance of the three people collapsed in 1192

In 1192, Go-shirakawa-in passed away. It was the Emperor Go-toba who succeeded and was still 12 at that time.

However, Kanezane and Yoritomo will move with the gap of Emperor Go-toba, whose power has been weakened by the death of the Go-shirakawa-in.

Yoritomo is appointed to the general called "Seii-Tai-Shougun" by boosting Kanezane.
"Seii-Tai-Shougun" means becoming a leader of a Japanese samurai, and this appointment is that Yoritomo held the right to oversee the Japanese military.

Even though Joko, the Emperor was the mainstream in politics, then Kanezane took action against it.

Yoritomo who got "Seii-Tai-Shougun" got a chance to exceed the power of the Kyoto government.
Within the Kyoto government, dissatisfaction with Kanezane who moved arbitrarily gathers up.

Kanezane Kujo became unnecessary and abandoned

Yoritomo who gained power as "Seii-Tai-Shougun" will put pressure on the Kyoto government more and more.

First of all, Yoritomo cuts down Kanezane who was a collaborator.
Kanezane acted selfishly and lost faith in the Kyoto government. He lost the power in the Kyoto government further because the daughter who was married to the Emperor Go-toba can not do children.

At 1196, Kanpaku finally became fired and goes down.

Responding to Go-toba without defeating

Emperor Go-toba who became 19 years old in 1197 also moves as Kanezane's gone. He abdicates his son to the Emperor (Emperor Tsuchimikado).
Emperor Go-toba was aiming at politics at the center of Joko, Emperor to the last.

It becomes a composition of "Joko vs Kamakura shogunate"

In this way, the fact that one of the three persons ceased to exist, the shogunate and the Kyoto government became parallel.
At that time, the Kamakura Shogunate had little influence in western Japan, Shikoku and Kyushu.

The execution of the right to set up the government office given from the Emperor is mainly in eastern Japan.
On the border of Kyoto, West Japan was a force of the Kyoto government, East Japan was a force of the Kamakura shogunate. That power was balanced.

This equilibrium state will continue for a while.

The 3rd generation general Sanetomo Minamoto-no is assassinated and the equilibrium state collapses

In 1219 after 22 years since Go-toba-in began Insei, the 3rd generation Shogun Sanetomo Minamoto-no of the Kamakura shogunate was assassinated by the nephew Kugyo.

Before the assassination, Sanetomo promised to harmonize with the Kyoto government. Since Sanetomo has no successor, it is a promise to welcome its successor from the Kyoto government.

The candidate for the successor was the royal family, the son of Go-toba-in, the brother of Tsuchimikado-in, the uncle of the Emperor.
The Kyoto government and the Kamakura shogunate tried to be as close as possible to a family relationship.

There was a strong disagreement from both the Kyoto government and the Kamakura shogunate.

In the Kamakura shogunate, the samurai, mainly of the Hojo clan, was strongly opposed to becoming closer to the Kyoto government.
They did not like being told various things from the Kyoto government.

In the Kyoto government, on the other hand, the nobles hated the eastern Japanese samurai to get a disproportionately high prize due to the royal family being in the general of the Kamakura shogunate.
The nobles in Kyoto thought that they did not want to work with rural people, and they did not want me to become a boss.

It was Sanetomo's role to adjust this. First of all, at the Kamakura Shogunate, Sanetomo became a guardian of the New Shogun as welcomed and hold down the samurai of the Kamakura shogunate.

Within the Kyoto government, Go-toba-in, who collaborated with Sanetomo, keeps down those who have dissatisfaction within the Kyoto government.

This reconciliation policy will collapse as Sanetomo is assassinated. After the assassination of Sanetomo, the Kamakura Shogunate will inquire of Go-toba-in's son general appointment as promised.

However, Go-toba-in rejected the consultation. Go-toba-in seems to have thought that Sanetomo was there because it was realized. If Sanetomo was not there may have been anxiety that samurai might be killed by his son in Kamakura.

Here the peace of the Kyoto government and the shogunate broke down.

Complete break of the Kyoto government and the Kamakura shogunate

Go-toba-in who refused to take office as a general, on the contrary, makes various requests to the Kamakura shogunate. The shogunate rejects this.
Conversely, the shogunate has given a request to the Kyoto government.

Go-toba-in is very angry with this. Go-toba-in finally ordered the samurai in the whole country to overthrow Yoshitoki Hojo, the substantial leader of the shogunate.

Here is one point. Go-toba-in is not ordering the shogunate to overthrow. It is bad that the Hojo clan does not say that the shogunate is bad.

There was Go-toba-in's idea on this. When he said that he would overthrow the shogunate, he thought that samurai would not gather at the Kyoto government.
In order to overwhelm the Hojo clan only to the end, it made it easy for the samurai who will be on the side of Go-toba-in to gather.

Actually, in the Kyoto government many people said that "Yoshitoki has become a rebellion of the state, so there will not be thousands of people who will be on his side."

There are no solutions other than war any more.

Finally, "Jokyu no ran" broke out !

On May 15, 1221, immediately after issuing an order to overthrow Yoshitoki, the government forces will kill Mitsusue Iga of the Kyoto guardian.
The Kyoto guardian official says to protect Kyoto, but in reality the Shogunate had the purpose to monitor the government.

This was a shake to the shogunate.

However, Yoshitoki's sister, Masako Hojo, the wife of the first generals of the shogunate, makes a wonderful speech famous for the samurai in Kamakura, strengthening the unity of the shogunate army.

The Hojo army, with Yoshitoki's son Yasutoki as general captain, attacked Kyoto. The battle ends in Hojo's victory in only one month.

The disposal of the postwar process against the government was tremendously harsh

Disposition by the Hojo clan to the Kyoto government was severe.

Go-toba-in was exiled to Oki, Juntoku-in who had abdicated the Emperor to sidelight with Go-toba-in was exiled to Sado.
Also, Tsuchimikado-in will be exiled to Tosa (later Awa).
Every Joko was exiled.

In addition, Emperor Chukyo was abdicated and the new emperor Go-horikawa was made a throne. And many of the aristocrats and samurai who were sided by the government forces became death sentences.

Funny place of "Jokyu no ran"

There is a funny part in "Jokyu no ran". For some reason, the Hojo clan severely punished the Kyoto government.
Perhaps you think that "Hojo won the war, is it natural reason?", But it is not so.

In the first place, the Hojo clan is a powerful samurai of the shogunate, a subordinate of the general of the Kamakura shogunate.
It is Emperor and Joko that guarantees the position of that general.
From the Hojo clan, the Emperor is the boss' s boss.

Although the Hojo clan can do as far as to win by fighting, originally, there is no right to punish almost all people of the Kyoto government.
Also, it is not a position to emphasize the emperor's throne, withdrawal.
Although we can make various favorable requests to the Kyoto government.

The Hojo clan kicked out Joko from Kyoto, forced the Emperor to take over and killed officials. There is no such thing in Japanese history.

In Japan there are more famous and more powerful samurai, Takauji Ashikaga, Nobunaga Oda, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, Ieyasu Tokugawa, but they have not done so much as well.

The behavior of the Hojo clan drastically changed the history of Japan

The beginning of the real samurai world

This behavior of the Hojo clan became a major turning point in Japan's history.
With this, Rokuhara-tandai is set up in Kyoto, the shogunate will always be monitoring the Kyoto government.

The reversal of the power relations between the Kyoto government and the shogunate did not change until 800 years after the modernization of Japan began.

Samurai society penetrates nationwide

Hojo clan will give 3,000 locations that were confiscated from aristocrats and priests who have disposed of to samurai in East Japan.
Most of these were those in West Japan.

As a result of this, the samurai society will become popular also in west Japan where samurai did not penetrate. "Japan is a country of samurai".

"Jokyu no ran" would be the best turning point for Japanese history. Even if you go to the world, you can communicate the word "SAMURAI".

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