The center of medieval politics of Japan is aristocratic members of the court in Kyoto.
That era is called "Heian (平安) era".
Politics of that era is called "Sekkan politics".
Fujiwara clan was also central politics. What kind of political system is it?
Heian period (平安時代)
It is about Japan's era from the late 8th century to the 12th century.
It is regarded as the beginning of the medieval period in Japan.
In the period centered on aristocrats in the imperial court of Kyoto, the samurai finishes by taking power.
Why is Sekkan politics?
From the meaning "politics centered on Sessho (摂政) and Kanpaku (関白)", it is called Sekkan (摂関) politics.
A system in which Fujiwara clan robbed the authority from the politics whose emperor was the center
Ancient Japan was desperate to become equal with China of the strongest and the most developed country at the time.
To that end, Japan aims at a centralized state centered on the Emperor. That goal was able to be achieved.
A country where power has gathered in places such as the capital.
This is true because Japan has concentrated power in Tokyo.
When entering the Heian period, the descendants of Kamatari Fujiwara who contributed to the centralized state construction will become political power. For that purpose Sekkan politics was born.
Sesshou is hijacked by the Fujiwara clan
Sesshou is a Regency in Japan.
In ancient Japan, Sesshou served as a royal family with the right to succeed to the throne. Prince Shotoku is famous in Japan.
However, in the Heian era, it will be superseded by a powerful person of the Fujiwara clan who built a relationship with the Emperor. It is said to be retainers regent（Jin-shin-Sesshou, 人臣摂政）.
As a result, Jin-shin-Sesshou seems to be natural, and as a result Sesshou=Fujiwara clan became common sense. The form of Sesshou 's job title was taken over by the Fujiwara clan from the royal family.
Along with this, the system called the centralized state centered on the Emperor also collapsed in operation. However, since the Fujiwara family could not exist without the authority of the Emperor, the centralized state itself of the Emperor itself did not collapse.
Kanpaku was made for Fujiwara clan
In Japan, the meaning of Sesshou is the representation of the Emperor. To say that it is quite impossible for Fujiwara clan to serve.
In Japan, there is a clear distinction between the Emperor and his minister. Even a minister who has the power can not easily enter the realm of the Emperor.
Fujiwara clan will now serve as Sesshou with a rather brutal interpretation of assisting his grandchildren and relatives' emperors who are not capable of doing politics.
Still Sesshou had a limit. The Emperor is also a human being. The Emperor will also grow. The Emperor will acquire the ability to do politics as it grows up.
In this way Sesshou becomes unnecessary. At the same time the power of the Fujiwara clan will be smaller. Here we will create a new post called Kanpaku.
Unlike Sesshou, Kanpaku is a position to assist the emperor who has the ability to do politics. It does not matter how much the Emperor has grown up and become a capable politician.
With this, Fujiwara clan succeeds in keeping the real power of politely stable regardless of whom the Emperor becomes, regardless of the situation of the Emperor.
The point of Sekkan politics is to become a relative of the Emperor
Japanese politics can not be done without an authority of the Emperor from ancient times to the present age. This will not change even if the center of politics becomes emperor, Fujiwara clan, samurai, cabinet.
It is always the politics of the emperor's authority. This was Fujiwara clan was no exception.
Fujiwara clan grabs the real power of politics under the authority of the Emperor by building a relationship with the Emperor.
Actually, it is not the original method of Fujiwara clan. It is a method that has been done in ancient times from ancient Japan.
In ancient times, influential clans such as the Mononobe clan and Soga clan used this method. Emperor Suiko famous in Japan, Prince Shotoku also mother is Soga clan.
It does not change even when entering the Kamakura period. The Kamakura period is the era of the first samurai regime in Japan. The Kamakura Shogunate will do similar things to have the royal family take office at the general.
The Tokugawa clan of the Edo period seems to return to ancient times. The Edo period is the era of the last samurai regime in Japan.
Emperor Meisho's grandfather is Hidetada Tokugawa Shogun 2, Grandmother Ogo.
Ogo is the daughter of Oichii, the younger sister of Nobunaga Oda, so Emperor Meisho inherits the lines of Tokugawa and Oda.
(Since Ogo's father is Nagamasa Asai, Asai is also inherited)
Tokugawa, Oda, Asai is a famous samurai family in Japan.
In addition, the wife of 14 generations Shogun Iemochi Tokugawa is the sister of Emperor Koumei. Let's return the story.
Fujiwara clan makes her married woman as a couple after the Emperor, and he becomes a grandfather, an uncle.
And they become Sesshou, Kanpaku, and they hold the power of politics in the form of assisting the Emperor. Continuing to hold the power of politics by monopolizing it with Fujiwara clan.
However, this method intensifies power struggle inside the Fujiwara clan. It is a struggle of who will become power as a relatives of the Emperor.
Formally it will continue until Japan modernizes
Sekkan politics will begin to have less influence due to the reform of the Emperor Go-sanjo 71th. From now on, the center of politics will move to Insei (Emperor), the shogunate (Kamakura, Muromachi, Edo), but in the process it will become a formalized system within the court.
First of all, because of the fighting forces within the Fujiwara clan, there is no way to make a foreign relationship with the Emperor. And only those of the house selected in the Fujiwara clan called Go-sekke (5 houses) will be appointed to Sesshou and Kanpaku. In the Kamakura period Go-sekke was fixed.
The political system of Sekkan politics has effectively ended in the era of Insei which began with the reform of Emperor Go-sanjo.
Still, when a new government is established by the modern revolution of Japan, Sesshou and Kanpaku will be suspended. Until this time it has been going to last nearly 1000 years.